Although it seems more Americans are choosing to die in hospice instead of spending their last days in intensive care units, new findings published in the Journal of the American Medical Association show hospice is often a last resort, only after aggressive treatments fail.
Researchers studied more than 800,000 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who died in 2000, 2005 and 2009. They were at least 66-years-old and died of cancer, dementia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Findings show more seniors are dying in hospice, but the rate of ICU use in the last month of life is also higher. In 2009, some 30 percent of the decedents experienced the ICU in the last months of life. Some 12 percent had three or more hospitalizations in their last 90 days of life.
Although hospice use did increase from 22 percent in 2000 to 42 percent in 2009, about 30 percent used a hospice for three days or less.
“We are not getting the right care to the right people,” study author Joan Teno told Politico. “And if we want to improve care, we’ve got to change the incentives — and publicly report the quality of care.” Teno is a health policy expert at Brown University and a practicing physician at Home and Hospice Care of Rhode Island.
Patients are moving from their hospital bed to the ICU for aggressive treatments, and they then move to a hospice to die. Nearly one-half transitioned to hospice in the last two weeks of life. Teno connects these short-term stays to the growing pattern of greater use of intensive services at the end of life. Hospice becomes an “add on” that does not reduce hospital resources.
Moving across care settings can increase stress on the patient and disrupt pain medications. “This is extremely burdensome to family members watching their dying loved ones,” Teno said.