Life Matters Media
Start the most difficult conversation American isn’t having- the conversation about our end of life preferences

Teen Sues State To Avoid Forced Cancer Treatment: Medical Ethicists Review Decision

Jackie and Cassandra Fortin. Family photo via NBC Connecticut.
Jackie Fortin and Cassandra C. Family photo via NBC Connecticut.

A 17-year-old girl is suing the State of Connecticut for forcing her to undergo unwanted cancer treatments that may cure her disease.

Cassandra C., recently diagnosed with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, resisted chemotherapy treatments because she “would not put poison into her body,” according to her mother, Jackie Fortin.

After doctors with Connecticut Children’s Medical Center in Hartford (CCMC) pushed Cassandra to undergo unwanted treatments, she ran away from home. Cassandra was returned to CCMC after the Department of Children and Families (DCF) was notified. According to court documents, a trial court ordered that she be removed from her home and for DCF to make all necessary medical decisions on her behalf.

“She has been backed up against a wall,” Fortin told NBC Connecticut. “She has always, even years ago, said that if ever she has cancer, she would not put poison into her body.”

Cassandra will turn 18 in September, when she will be able to make her own medical decisions. She fears chemotherapy will do more harm to her body than the cancer.

Michael Taylor, a lawyer representing Cassandra, argues she is old enough to make her own medical decisions without government interference. “When you think about what freedom means,” he said, “a big part of it means being able to say to the government, ‘You can’t tell me what to do with my own body.’ “

The State Supreme Court will hear arguments Jan. 8. The court agreed to an expedited ruling involving the “mature minor doctrine,” which holds that some minors possess the maturity to make their own medical decisions, even if younger than 18, The Hartford Courant reports.

Jackie Fortin pleas for her daughter's
Jackie Fortin pleas for her daughter’s release in video

In an online video, Fortin claims Cassandra’s human and constitutional rights have been violated, because she has been forced to receive chemotherapy against her wishes and may face side-effects, including infertility. Fortin repeatedly denied influencing her daughter’s position.

“As required by law, Connecticut Children’s is currently working closely with the Department of Children and Families (DCF) in a matter concerning the provision of care for a particular patient currently under the custody of DCF.  Later this week, the state Supreme Court will hear arguments concerning this very important case and we look forward to their involvement and guidance,” according to a CCMC statement sent to Life Matters Media. “Due to HIPAA regulations and out of courtesy for this patient and family members, we will not provide any additional information at this time.”

Ethicists Weigh Fortin’s Decision

Dr. Joel E. Frader, a Northwestern University bioethicist and palliative care pediatrician at Lurie Children’s Hospital in Chicago, argues this case cannot be easily divided between “right” and “wrong,” because maturity and age are relative.

Does she have the capacity to make this kind of decision? Why is she afraid of chemotherapy?

“Modern neuroscience suggests that full adult maturity probably does not come into play until approximately age 25— which of course raises all sorts of interesting policy issues. The state and the judicial system should focus on maturity, which is not so easily assessed,” he told LMM. “While we would have the legal responsibility to respect the wishes of a 19-year-old to refuse cancer treatment, we would also have the ethical duty to try to persuade a 19 year-old with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma to accept treatment, as more likely than not, she or he would survive and have a good quality of life.”

It would not be justified, he added, to use physical restraints to force treatments on a refusing patient.

Craig Klugman, Ph.D., a bioethicist and chair of the Department of Health Sciences at DePaul University in Chicago, said the case should hinge on Cassandra’s mental capacity and not her age.

“There are some very immature 17-year-olds and some very mature 17-year-olds. The questions we should be asking: What does she know about her disease condition? What does she know about the risks and benefits of treatment? Does she have the capacity to make this kind of decision? Why is she afraid of chemotherapy?” he told LMM. “Is there something that happens the morning of your 18th birthday where your brain matures? Absolutely not. Eighteen is an arbitrary number.”

Klugman called Jackie Fortin “courageous,” because she has chosen to honor her daughter’s wishes and not take the easy path.

“This is a mother who clearly loves her daughter, clearly supports her daughter, and the state is taking her right to decide away because she disagrees with the doctors,” he added. “They strapped Cassandra down to a table and forced treatment on her, even when she was resisting. The state is giving precedence to medicine over a parent and child.”

Aana Marie Vigen, Ph.D, an associate professor of Christian Social Ethics at Loyola University Chicago, is concerned that Cassandra has not been given proper support or accurate information about the disease, and she hopes an interdisciplinary medical team will help sort-out the crisis.

“What kinds of consults has the family had with social workers, chaplains, case managers, psychologists? An integrated approach, during relationship building or bioethics consult, can help head-off conflicts,” she told LMM. “It’s very sad that communication and trust have broken-down so much. The daughter refers to chemo as poison, but who has broken that down for her? Where is that coming from?”

Last Update: Jan. 7, 2015